Confounding occurs when effects of variables are somehow mixed so that the individual effect of the variables cannot be identified.

-Biostatistics for the Biological and Health Sciences with Statdisk by Triola (2006).


In this example, Dave planned for a 4 hour hike for a sunny day. On the day of the hike, it rained, adding 2 hours. The rain is the confounding variable.

Related Terms


Observational Study

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